Hydrobatics: Efficient and Agile Underwater Robots
Time: Mon 2020-12-14 14.00
Subject area: Vehicle and Maritime Engineering
Doctoral student: Sriharsha Bhat , Farkostteknik och Solidmekanik
Opponent: Dr Alexander Phillips, National Oceanography Centre
Supervisor: Ivan Stenius, Farkostteknik och Solidmekanik; Dimos V. Dimarogonas, Reglerteknik, Centrum för autonoma system, CAS, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre
The term hydrobatics refers to the agile maneuvering of underwater vehicles. Hydrobatic capabilities in autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) can enable increased maneuverability without a sacrifice in efficiency and speed. This means innovative robot designs and new use case scenarios are possible. Benefits and technical challenges related to hydrobatic AUVs are explored in this thesis. The dissertation contributes to new knowledge in simulation, control and field applications, and provides a structured approach to realize hydrobatic capabilities in real world impact areas.
Three impact areas are considered - environmental monitoring, ocean production and security. A combination of agility in maneuvering and efficiency in performance is crucial for successful AUV applications. To achieve such performance, two technical challenges must be solved. First, these AUVs have fewer control inputs than degrees of freedom, which leads to the challenge of underactuation. The challenge is described in detail and solution strategies that use optimal control and model predictive control (MPC) are highlighted. Second, the flow around an AUV during hydrobatic maneuvers transitions from laminar to turbulent flow at high angles of attack. This renders flight dynamics modelling difficult. A full 0-360 degree envelope flight dynamics model is therefore derived, which combines a multi-fidelity hydrodynamic database with a generalized component-buildup approach. Such a model enables real-time (or near real-time) simulations of hydrobatic maneuvers including loops, helices and tight turns.
Next, a cyber-physical system (CPS) is presented -- it safely transforms capabilities derived in simulation to real-world use cases in the impact areas described. The simulator environment is closely integrated with the robotic system, enabling pre-validation of controllers and software before hardware deployment. The small and hydrobatic SAM AUV (developed in-house at KTH as part of the Swedish Maritime Robotics Center) is used as a test platform. The CPS concept is validated by using the SAM AUV for the search and detection of a submerged target in field operating conditions.
Current research focuses on further exploring underactuated control and motion planning. This includes development of real-time nonlinear MPC implementations running on AUV hardware, as well as intelligent control through feedback motion planning, system identification and reinforcement learning. Such strategies can enable real-time robust and adaptive control of underactuated systems. These ideas will be applied to demonstrate new capabilities in the three impact areas.