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Hardware Distortion-Aware Beamforming for MIMO Systems

Time: Tue 2024-03-12 13.15

Location: Ka-301, Kistagången 16, Kista

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Language: English

Subject area: Information and Communication Technology

Doctoral student: Yasaman Khorsandmanesh , Kommunikationssystem, CoS

Opponent: Senior Expert, Adjunct Professor Bo Göransson, Ericsson AB, Stockholm,

Supervisor: Professor Emil Björnson, Kommunikationssystem, CoS; Professor Joakim Jaldén, Teknisk informationsvetenskap

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QC 20240219


In the upcoming era of communication systems, there is an anticipated shift towards using lower-grade hardware components to optimize size, cost, and power consumption. This shift is particularly beneficial for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems and internet-of-things devices, which require numerous components and extended battery lifes. However, using lower-grade components introduces impairments, including various non-linear and time-varying distortions affecting communication signals. Traditionally, these distortions have been treated as additional noise due to the lack of a rigorous theory. This thesis explores new perspective on how distortion structure can be exploited to optimize communication performance. We investigate the problem of distortion-aware beamforming in various scenarios. 

In the first part of this thesis, we focus on systems with limited fronthaul capacity. We propose an optimized linear precoding for advanced antenna systems (AAS) operating at a 5G base station (BS) within the constraints of a limited fronthaul capacity, modeled by a quantizer. The proposed novel precoding minimizes the mean-squared error (MSE) at the receiver side using a sphere decoding (SD) approach. 

After analyzing MSE minimization, a new linear precoding design is proposed to maximize the sum rate of the same system in the second part of this thesis. The latter problem is solved by a novel iterative algorithm inspired by the classical weighted minimum mean square error (WMMSE) approach. Additionally, a heuristic quantization-aware precoding method with lower computational complexity is presented, showing that it outperforms the quantization-unaware baseline. This baseline is an optimized infinite-resolution precoding which is then quantized. This study reveals that it is possible to double the sum rate at high SNR by selecting weights and precoding matrices that are quantization-aware. 

In the third part and final part of this thesis, we focus on the signaling problem in mobile millimeter-wave (mmWave) communication. The challenge of mmWave systems is the rapid fading variations and extensive pilot signaling. We explore the frequency of updating the combining matrix in a wideband mmWave point-to-point MIMO under user equipment (UE) mobility. The concept of beam coherence time is introduced to quantify the frequency at which the UE must update its downlink receive combining matrix. The study demonstrates that the beam coherence time can be even hundreds of times larger than the channel coherence time of small-scale fading. Simulations validate that the proposed lower bound on this defined concept guarantees no more than 50 \% loss of received signal gain (SG).