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Generating Optimized and Secure Binary Code

Time: Wed 2023-06-07 13.00

Location: F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26 & 28, Stockholm

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Language: English

Subject area: Information and Communication Technology Information and Communication Technology

Doctoral student: Rodothea Myrsini Tsoupidi , Programvaruteknik och datorsystem, SCS

Opponent: Professor Fernando Magno Quintão Pereira, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil

Supervisor: Professor Elena Troubitsyna, Teoretisk datalogi, TCS; Professor Panagiotis Papadimitratos, Programvaruteknik och datorsystem, SCS

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QC 20230516


The increased digitalization of modern societies has resulted in a proliferation of a broad spectrum of embedded devices, ranging from personal smartphones and heart pacemakers to large-scale industrial IoT systems. Since they often handle various sensitive data, these devices increasingly become the targets of cyberattacks that threaten the integrity of personal data, financial security, and sometimes even people’s safety.

A common source of security vulnerabilities in computing systems is software. Nowadays, the vast majority of embedded software is written in high-level programming languages and compiled to low-level assembly code using general-purpose compilers. However, general-purpose compilers typically ignore security aspects and mainly focus on improving performance and reducing the code size. Meanwhile, the security-targeting compilers often produce code that is suboptimal with respect to performance. This security-performance gap is particularly detrimental for embedded devices that are usually battery-operated and hence, have stringent restrictions on memory size and power consumption.

Among the most frequently carried out cyberattacks are code-reuse attacks. They insert data into the victim system via memory-corruption vulnerabilities to redirect the control flow and hijack the system. Automatic software diversification is an efficient mitigation approach against code-reuse attacks, however, it typically does not allow us to explicitly control of the introduced performance overhead.

Another large class of attacks is side-channel attacks. Such attacks often target cryptographic implementations and aim at extracting the information about the processed data by recording side-channel information, such as the execution time or the power consumption of the victim system. Typically, protection against side-channel attacks relies on software-based mitigations, which may lead to high performance overhead. An attacker that attempts to hijack the victim system may use either or both of these attacks and hence, often multiple mitigations have to be combined together to protect a system.

This dissertation proposes Secure-by-Construction Optimization (Sec-Opt), a constraint-based approach that combines performance goals with security mitigations. More specifically, SecOpt achieves performance-aware automatic code diversification against code-reuse attacks, while it generates highly-optimized code that preserves software mitigations against side-channel attacks. A key advantage of SecOpt is composability, namely the ability to combine conflicting mitigations and generate code that preserves these mitigations. In particular, SecOpt generates diverse code variants that are secure against side-channel attacks, therefore protecting against both code-reuse and side-channel attacks.

SecOpt features unique characteristics compared to conventional compiler-based approaches, including performance-awareness and mitigation composability in a formal framework. Since the combined security and performance goals are especially important for resource-constrained systems, SecOpt constitutes a practical approach for optimizing performance- and security-critical code for embedded devices.