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Exergy Evaluation of Engine Operations

Combustion Process to Exhaust Flow

Time: Thu 2023-11-16 14.00

Location: Gladan, Brinellvägen 85, Stockholm

Video link:

Language: English

Subject area: Machine Design Energy Technology

Doctoral student: Ph.D. student Beichuan Hong , Mekatronik och inbyggda styrsystem, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx)

Opponent: Professor Sundar Rajan Krishnan, University of Alabama, Department of Mechanical Engineering

Supervisor: Universitets lektor Andreas Cronhjort, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx), Mekatronik och inbyggda styrsystem; Professor Mihai Mihaescu, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx), Linné Flow Center, FLOW, Strömningsmekanik och Teknisk Akustik

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Transitioning the transport sector to clean energy sources is crucial for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and achieving carbon neutrality. A collaborative solution, combining both electric vehicles and combustion engines using renewable fuels, may prove more effective than competitive ones. This necessitates a focus on developing sustainable combustion engines by improving their efficiency through renewable energy sources and innovative technologies.

This thesis uses exergy analysis to evaluate engine efficiency, losses, and irreversibilities, as well as the work potential of exhaust flows. Particular emphasis is placed on the implications of these exergy analyses in relation to engine operations, especially concerning combustion processes and exhaust pulsations. Exergy analysis quantifies the maximum work extractable from an energy source, enabling the identification and quantification of losses and inefficiencies in thermal processes. A dual-fuel marine engine with two-stage turbocharging and an ethanol-fueled heavy-duty spark-ignition (SI) engine using lean burn are examined with validated one-dimensional engine models to analyze engine performance and losses from an exergy perspective. In the tested marine engine, irreversibilities are quantified and categorized into three types, with combustion irreversibility being the most significant, followed by losses through gas exchange and heat dissipation. In the ethanol-fueled SI engine, the effect of lean-burn combustion at high load is investigated through the excess air ratio up to 1.8, assessing its impact on thermal efficiency, combustion phasing, as well as energy and exergy distributions. Results indicate that employing lean burn improves engine efficiency with advanced combustion phasing but also leads to more exergy destruction. The importance of maintaining high exergy recovery through turbocharging for diluted operation is also highlighted.

Additionally, high-frequency exhaust pulsations resulting from valve motion pose challenges in accurately resolving exhaust energy and exergy. To address this, this thesis investigates methods for exhaust pulse characterization and measurement under unsteady flow conditions. Sensitivity analyses, based on a heavy-duty engine simulation, highlight the importance of time-resolved mass flow measurements in quantifying the energy and exergy of exhaust pulsations. Subsequently, this research implements a Pitot tube-based approach to measure crank angle-resolved engine exhaust mass flow rates and to further analyze the effect of attenuated temperature measurements on resolving instantaneous mass flows. The findings indicate that temperature variations pertaining to exhaust flow conditions have only a relatively small impact on mass flow measurements. Based on the exhaust flow measurements, the mass flow characteristics of exhaust pulsations are also discussed with regard to the blow-down and scavenge phases.