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Coordinated Frequency Control Between Interconnected AC/DC Systems

Time: Wed 2020-10-07 10.00

Location: H1, Teknikringen 33, H-building, floor 5, KTH Campus, Stockholm (English)

Subject area: Electrical Engineering

Doctoral student: Danilo Obradovic , Elkraftteknik, Power System Operation and Control

Opponent: Jonas Persson, Vattenfall

Supervisor: Mehrdad Ghandari, Elkraftteknik, Elektrotekniska system; Robert Eriksson, Elkraftteknik

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With ambitions of reducing the environmental pollution, power systems integrate larger shares of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) to phase out conventional thermal and nuclear generators. Since RES (such as wind and solar power) are connected to the grid through power electronics devices, they do not inherently contribute to system inertia. With decreasing inertia, the Instantaneous Frequency Deviation (IFD), which follows a power unbalance, is significantly impacted. Frequency Containment Reserves (FCR) are designed to provide a fast dynamic response, counteract power imbalances and stabilize the frequency within a short time interval.

Besides inertia, the significant factors affecting frequency behavior are the available amount of FCR and the capability of their fast and stable response. System operators define the list of requirements that a generating unit has to satisfy to participate in FCR. Generators, which are the major part of FCR, have different governors and turbines properties. This study assesses the dynamical performance of typical generators in both open-loop testing and closed-loop varying inertia systems. The goal is to evaluate if specific FCR requirements present a sufficient condition for the desired response, and which governor properties are capable of satisfying them.

As an additional, and sometimes necessary, support to FCR, HVDC interconnections are utilized in the form of Emergency Power Control (EPC). This thesis investigates which of the EPC methods performs appropriately in terms of IFD improvement, closed-loop stability, and power and energy provided. The analysis is a continuation from the previous investigation on FCR, and mainly compare two EPC methods related to Nordic Power System (NPS) test case: ramp/step method which is currently implemented in the NPS, and droop frequency-based EPC, proposed by this study for the future operation in the NPS.

Apart from ensuring a proper system frequency response, the influence of implemented HVDC supplementary active power control is analyzed to rotor angle stability. In further, this thesis presents a comprehensive analysis of the impact that proposed HVDC supplementary power control has on the linearized dynamics of power systems. By building a generic system, this analytical study is the first of its kind that includes both higher order generator dynamics, and local angle/frequency input of the controller. The methodological approach here analytically formulates the impact the HVDC supplementary control has mainly on the generator synchronizing and damping torque components.

The positive impact of the droop frequency-based HVDC power support is highlighted using both single and multi-machine systems. In that way, the implementation of desired droop frequency-based HVDC control to mainly improve system frequency is motivated furthermore. It shows that a proper HVDC supplementary control may impose the various positive impacts for future variable and low inertia scenarios, and ensure a proper power system sustainability.