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# Three methods of weighing results

You can use three different methods in Canvas to combine a grade from several assignments. You can use outcomes, export and work in an external program or use assignment groups. These methods are described on this page.

## Method 1: Grade with outcomes in a rubric

This option is mainly relevant for you who grade each assignment directly based on learning oucomes, but it can also be set to manage points. The grading uses a rubric of learning outcomes that you create in advance. Read more on the following pages:

## Method 2: Export and import, use an external program

One way to numerically weigh grades is to download the Gradebook and process it in an external program, for example Excel. Then you import the results back into the Gradebook again. The result must be imported into an assignment, so we recommend creating a new assignment for the final results.

You will find the functions for importing and exporting in the Gradebook (above the assignment name).

How to use this method:

1. Create an assignment for the final results. Remember to set the correct type of grades to be reported, e.g. letter grade.
2. Publish the assignment.
3. Export the entire Gradebook (it becomes a CSV file).
4. Process the results and enter the final result in the new assignment column.
5. Save as a CSV file. Remember to format as UTF-8 so that special characters can be handled.
6. Import the file into the Gradebook. Canvas will show what changes will be made.
7. Press "Save Changes" if everything looks right.

Note! KTH does not provide direct support for this type of weighing results. You can, however, book a workshop on importing and exporting CSV files in Canvas: Compile grades from different Canvas Rooms via Excel (60 min) .

## Method 3: Use Canvas assignment groups

Method three is to use Canvas assignment groups (better suited when you have a simpler numerical weighting method). When you create assignments, you assign them points that Canvas uses to weight them against each other. Note that the weighting always uses the score even if you display the grades as a percentage or letter grade.

If the assignments are in an assignment group, they will be weighted against each other within the group. You can also set so that the final result of the course is calculated by weighting assignment groups against each other according to a chosen percentage. See the calculation example under the next heading for more details and read how to activate the function on the following page: How do I weight the final course grade based on assignment groups? (community.canvaslms.com)

### Calculation example of how students' results are weighted in Canvas

In this example, we will calculate the results of two students in an example course to show how Canvas weigh points and how it can cause unexpected results. The final result in the example is calculated from two assignment groups and one exam according to the following weighting:

• 20% from assignment group 1.
• 30% from assignment group 2.
• 50% from the exam.

The grading scale used is one of KTH's standards, which in Canvas is called "A-F grading scheme (including Fx)". E is achieved at at least 45%, C at at least 55% and so on to A at at least 85%.

Table 1. Two students' results on the assignments in an example course. Both students have the same letter grade on all assignments, but different point scores. Student 1 has the highest score possible for that letter grade while Student 2 has the lowest.
Elements Max points Student 1, points and grade Student 2, points and grade
Assignment group 1. Assignment 10 10 (A) 8,5 (A)
Assignment group 1. Smaller assignment 5 3,7 (C) 3,3 (C)
Assignment group 1. Important quiz 15 8,1 (E) 7 (E)
Assignment group 2. Large assignment 20 20 (A) 17 (A)
Assignment group 2. Quiz 5 4,2 (B) 3,8 (B)
Assignment group 2. Quiz 5 3,2 (D) 2,8 (D)
Exam 30 25,2 (B) 22,5 (B)

#### Assignment group 1

Assignment group 1 includes three elements that together make up 20% of the grade. The elements are:

• an assignment of 10 points
• a smaller assignment of 5 points
• an important quiz of 15 points.

For student 1 in the table, the weigthed result for assignment group 1 (in percentage) is:

$${10+3,7+8,1 \over 10+5+15} = 73\%$$

For student 2, the same weighting will be:

$${8,5+3,3+7 \over 10+5+15} = 63\%$$

#### Assignment group 2

Assignment group 2 includes three elements that together make up 30% of the grade. The elements are:

• a large assignment of 20 points
• a quiz of 5 points
• another 5 point quiz.

For student 1 in the table, the weighted result for assignment group 2 (in percentage) is:

$${20+4,2+3,2 \over 20+5+5} = 91\%$$

For student 2, the same weighting will be:

$${17+3,8+2,8 \over 20+5+5} = 79\%$$

#### Examination

The result from the exam is included in an assignment that is in its own assignment group and constitutes 50% of the total result.

For student 1 in the table, the result for the exam is (in percentage):

$${25,2 \over 30} = 84\%$$

For student 2, the result is:

$${22,5 \over 30} = 75\%$$

#### Total in the course

The total result in the course is calculated according to the weighting for the different assignment groups. For student 1, the total result is:

$$(73\%*0,2) + (91\%*0,3) + (84\%*0,5) = 83,9\%$$

Which corresponds to a B in the course.

For student 2, the total result is:

$$(63\%*0,2) + (79\%*0,3) + (75\%*0,5) = 73,8\%$$

Which corresponds to a C in the course.

The two students thus get different final results even though they had the same letter grade on all assignments in the course, because their point scores differ.

## Contact and support for Canvas

Do you have questions or do you want guidance?

For general support: it-support@kth.se

For educational support: e-learning@kth.se